Does greater coffee intake increase life span?

Alerji Recently, the Independent published an article with headline “Drinking coffee could reduce chance of early death, scientists say”. The source of the news article was a study conducted in the European countries, studying the association between the coffee consumption and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, digestive and respiratory system diseases.

The study was carried out with 450,000 participants in 1992-2000 as a cohort research. Researches classified the coffee consumption and searched the association between coffee intake and the chronic diseases. Researchers classified the coffee consumption as low, low-medium, medium-high and high consumption based on coffee consumption habits of countries:

Country Low Low-Medium Medium-High High
Denmark ≤500mL/day ≤900mL/day ≤1300mL/day >1300mL/day
France ≤150mL/day ≤280mL/day ≤450mL/day >450mL/day
Germany ≤261mL/day ≤395mL/day ≤580mL/day >580mL/day
Greece ≤70mL/day ≤140mL/day ≤240mL/day >240mL/day
Italy ≤60mL/day ≤92mL/day ≤138mL/day >138mL/day
The Netherlands ≤375mL/day ≤500mL/day ≤750mL/day >750mL/day
Norway ≤300mL/day ≤420mL/day ≤540mL/day >540mL/day
Spain ≤50mL/day ≤105mL/day ≤196mL/day >196mL/day
Sweden ≤300mL/day ≤400mL/day ≤601mL/day >601mL/day<
United Kingdom ≤83mL/day ≤380mL/day ≤488mL/day >488mL/day
41,693 participants in total passed away within a period of 16.4 years which was the monitoring period of the research and cancer was the prominent reason of the mortality.

Research results showed that;

Men and women with higher coffee consumption had lower risk of mortality by 12% and 7% respectively, compared to those who do not consume coffee daily ; however, it was found that the risk of death by cancer increases.

It is reported that the following results were obtained when the causes of death associated with various diseases and coffee consumption are analysed:

• The risk of mortality associated with digestive system diseases is lower for men and women who drink more coffee, by 59% and 40% respectively, compared to those who never drink coffee.

• The risk of mortality associated with circulatory system and cerebrovascular diseases is lower by 22% and 30%, respectively for woman who drink more coffee, compared to those who never drink coffee. For women, negative result is reported for the association between coffee consumption and risk of mortality due to cancer.

• It is reported that the risk of mortality due to cancer is 12% higher for woman who drink more coffee, compared to those who never drink coffee.

The following results were obtained when the risk of mortality due to diseases was analysed based on the quantity of caffeine intake:

• The mortality rate associated with all causes showed a slight reduction for women who consume coffee with caffeine at large amounts.

• It is reported that the risk of mortality associated with digestive system diseases declines substantially with individuals who consume coffee with caffeine at large amounts.

• It is also suggested that the risk of mortality associated with circulatory system diseases and cerebrovascular diseases declines with women and men who consume coffee with caffeine at large amounts.

Studies in connection with caffeine-free coffee showed that:

• For men and women who drink more caffeine-free coffee, a slight decline is observed in the rate of mortality associated with all causes; and high reduction is observed for men in connection with the risk of mortality associated with digestive system diseases.

Points of concern

This cohort study analysing the risk of mortality associated with coffee consumption and diseases should be interpreted by taking the following aspects into consideration:

1. Other factors might account for the differences in death during follow-up: Even though several parameters are taken into consideration during the analysis of the data, stress, family history about diseases and health condition may have had an effect on the results.
2. The participants included were all ‘healthy’: Individuals with cancer, cardiovascular diseases or diabetes were not included in the study. Results may be affected as potential differences in coffee consumption habits of these individuals were not taken into consideration.
3. Different cut-off levels of coffee per country were used: Coffee consumption rate classification varying by country (low-medium-high) may not reflect the individual results accurately.
4. Coffee consumption, diet and life style habits were questioned once: habits may change over time. The information obtained about coffee consumption habit of each individual that was asked only 1 time may not reflect the life-long coffee consumption pattern. In addition, diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol drinking patterns were asked and evaluated 1 time.
5. Date were evaluated using several analyses: Evaluation of the data using several analyses may lead to coincidental results.

Scientific facts

• In 2015 report of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), it is stated that the highest caffeine intake occurs with adults between the age of 18 and 65 and substantial part of the caffeine intake arises from the coffee consumption. EFSA emphasized that 400 mg/day caffeine intake (approximately 4 cups of coffee) would not lead to any health issues; however, especially pregnant women should limit daily caffeine intake with 200g (approximately 2 cups of coffee).

• In 2016 report of the World Health Organization (WHO), a recommendation was made for limiting the caffeine intake of pregnant women whose caffeine intake exceeds 300 mg per day.

In conclusion, it should be noted that there are several factors such as genes, diet and life style, physical activity and environmental factors that may lead to chronic diseases and premature death. It has been scientifically proven that daily coffee consumption and caffeine intake recommended by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority, would not lead to any health risk.

References:
• European Food Safety Authority, EFSA explains risk assessment, What is caffeine?
Link: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/corporate_publications/files/efsaexplainscaffeine150527.pdf • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA), Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine, EFSA Journal, 12(5), May 2015.
• World Health Organization (WHO), e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA), Restricting caffeine intake during pregnancy.





0


Terms of Use

Click to read our terms of use!

Recommend To Your Friends

Let your friends learn about the Sabri Ülker Food Foundation. Contribute to the healthy development of Turkish society.

Contact Form

Please fill out the form below to reach us.