Bread and Grains Group

Non-purified grains are rich particularly in vitamin B1 (thiamine) and also in B vitamins, except B12, as such they are crucial in the daily diet.

Grains make up the essential nutrient group for Turkish people. The group includes grain kernels such as wheat, rice, corn, rye and oats as well as items made of these kernels such as flour, cracked wheat, coarsely ground wheat, cracker and similar products. Grains and grain products are important food items as they contain vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates (starch, fiber) and other nutrients. Grains also contain protein. Even though they are poor in protein quality, this can be improved when consumed together with legumes or with foods such as meat, milk or eggs. Grains consist a little bit of oil as well. The oil of grain kernels is rich in vitamin E. Grains contain almost no elements with vitamin A activity, nor do they have any vitamin C. Grains are rich in B-group vitamins, except B12and they are the best source of especially vitamin B1 (thiamine). These vitamins are found mainly on the bran and germ of grain kernels. Bread and Grains

Grain Products:

Flour: Consumption of grains is mainly through flour and flour products. Flour is synonymous with wheat flour. Other flours are known by the name of the grains they are made from. When grain kernels are ground, bran and germ separateand therefore protein, vitamin and mineral content decreases.

Bulgur: It is made from wheatand used widely in Turkey. Bulgur retains most of it nutritional value during processing. It is a good source of grains.

Starch: The most commonly used starch is wheat starch. There is also rice, corn and potato starch. Starch is a source of carbohydrateand it does not contain vitamins, minerals or proteins.

Pasta-Noodle: Vitamin and mineral values are low in those made from white flour.

Bread: The most consumed grain type. Three types of bread is consumed in our country: Bread, pastry and flatbread. Bread has a higher nutritional value when it is made with yeast. Mineral absorption, particularly of zinc, is low in breads. For that reason, consumption of breads without yeast must be avoided.

Benefits of whole-grain flour and products made from whole-grain flour

Foods made from grains with the bran and germ remaining intact are rich in vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Consumption of fiber-rich foods help stimulate bowel movements and protect against cardiovascular diseases.


1 - Try to consume whole-grain products every day.
2 - Amount to consume varies depending on the person's weight and physical activity status.
3 - Three slices of bread (75 grams) may suffice for an overweight person with limited activity, while a slim person can consume 3-5 times more than that.
4 - Six portions of whole grain products can be consumed per day (6 slices of bread or 3 slices of bread + 1 ladle of soup containing flour + 4 tablespoons of rice). People performing heavy manual workand therefore need energy, can consume more of this group.
5 - Try to consume with other foods (legumes, milk and dairy products) to increase protein and vitamin content.

Dietary Guidelines for Turkey, 2004


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